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Author Guidelines

All journal contributors are required to follow the prescribed journal format set by PAIR. Each element in the entire manuscript is presented in detail to ensure that the authors can fully follow the procedure from manuscript preparation down to its final revision.

Initial Submission

Articles (in  Word  format)  should  be  submitted to  journals@ philair.ph for initial evaluation. After the first assessment and 1st Technology-Based Quality Assurance (Grammarly Test, Plagiarism Test, Readability Test and Reference-Checking), the editorial office shall inform the author whether his paper has been accepted or rejected for publication in accordance to the qualifying standards set by PAIR.

I.  Qualifying Standards for Electronic Submission

A full manuscript should pass the following criteria:

Criterion   1:   Scope,   Newness   and   Relevance/Applicability   to

International Community – 45%

•   The scope (extent of what one intends to cover) of the study

is wide-ranging.

•   The aspects of the paper such as, but not limited to, methods

and results are seemingly new.

•   The entire paper is interesting to read by other nations.

•   The   research   results   have   international   character   and


•   The  quality  of  academic  writing  reflects  the  nature  and

nuances of the discipline.

•   The quality of academic writing is graduate level.

Criterion 2Results of Plagiarism, Grammar and Readability Check

– 20%

•   The  manuscript  obtains  the  minimum  result:  plagiarism

detection – 95%; grammar check – 90%.

Criterion 3: Quality of References – 20%

•   Sources (journals, books, and other references) are traceable online unless otherwise a justification is made.

•   Journals are internationally refereed and indexed.

•   Journals are not listed in Beall’s list of stand-alone journals and predatory publishers.

•   Articles  on  Wikipedia  and  gray  literature  (non-scientific sources) must be avoided.

•   Scientific sources cited were published preferably in Year 2010 onwards unless otherwise a justification is given.

Criterion 4Completeness of Parts – 15%

•   Each part of the manuscript contains appropriate and sufficient substance.

•   The paper demonstrates the following parts:

  • 1. HEADING


    Name of the Author(s) ORCID No.

    Email Address Affiliation Address

  • 2.   ABSTRACT
  • 3.   KEYWORDS
  • 5.   FRAMEWORK
  • 7.   MATERIALS AND METHODS (for experimental researches) METHODOLOGY (for non-experimental researches)

Manuscript Formatting Guide


  • Boldface
  • 12-15 characters
  • Title by result (preferably)
  • Catchy, interesting, relevant to international audience
  • Language universally understandable
  • Set the first letter of each key word in uppercase

For example,

Title by Scope: Categorizing Communication Strategies in the Oral Expositions of Tourism Management Students (X)

Title   by   Result:   Fillers,   Mime  and  Self-Repetitions  as  Most Frequently Used Communication Strategies in Oral Expositions (√)


  • Name of Author/s (First name, Middle Initial, Last Name)
  • Boldface
  • Sentence case
  • ORCID No. (Register to orcid.org to obtain your orcid no.)
  • Gmail address or webmail address (It is a policy of PAIR pursuant to our ISO standards that no contributors shall use yahoomail)
  • Affiliation (Institution or Organization)
  • Address (City, Country e.g. Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines)


For example,

Rommel V. Tabula
Mariano Marcos State University
Batac City, Philippines


  • Should contain 190 (minimum)- 210 (maximum) words
  • The Abstract must contain five parts written in one paragraph: Introduction to the topic, chief purpose/objective, method, results, and conclusion.

For example,

The  van  Hiele  levels  of  thinking has five reasoning levels, namely, holistic, analytic, abstract, deductive, and rigorous. This study aimed to determine the effects of spatial activities to the students’ van Hiele Levels of thinking. It evaluated the van Hiele levels of geometrical reasoning taking into account the van Hiele level they reflected and their mathematical accuracy after exposure  to  spatial  activities. Pretest-posttest design was used in this study. Sixty third-year high school students from five sections were the subjects with 30 students each in the control and experimental groups. The results revealed that only Level 1 in the post-test was significant. As to the type of reply, the post-test results showed that the control

group acquired low acquisition to high acquisition in each level while the experimental group had low acquisition to complete acquisition in each level. Only Level 2 in the control group and Levels 3 and 4 in the experimental group could predict Mathematics grade. The control group had weaker reasoning capabilities in answering geometry problems; while the experimental group increased their level of reasoning, and  thus,  were  able  to  answer  geometry  problems.  This study concludes that the exposure to spatial activities would enhance the levels of reasoning of the third-year students in the study of geometry.


  • Indicate the discipline of the study, concepts studied, research design/process and setting of the study (city and country) as keywords.
  • Set keywords in sentence case.

For example,

Kewords— Linguistics, communication strategies, descriptive design, Batac City, Philippines


The Introduction should contain:

First Section

    •    Global situational analysis of the problem supported by the literature from different continents

Second Section

    • Regional  situational  analysis  supported  by  literature  from the region of the study. Researchers from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) such as Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam must include literature from these countries to capture the ASEAN perspective in the study.

Third Section

  •    Gap in the literature that the study intends to address
  •    Differentness of the study from other previous studies
  •    Compelling reasons of the writer for choosing the problem


  • (Optional for experimental researches)
  • It should contain basic explication of the meaning of the variables of the study.
  • Present the framework in either schematic or textual form merging the theories discussed in which the study was anchored.
  • Remove diagram unless very essential.
  • No framework is required (for experimental study).


  • State the OBJECTIVES of the study in paragraph form.
  • Use objectives that show what the researcher shall do with the data and not words to indicate what the researcher intends to do as a research process.
  • Write the objectives in paragraph form setting one from the
  • others by a number in close parenthesis.


For Pure Sciences:

MATERIALS AND METHODS Research Design Research Site Participants Instrumentation

      • Construction, try-out, reliability and validity

Research Ethics Protocol

    • Informed consent
    • Clearance from the Ethics Review Board
    • Gratuitous permit from a government agency for floral and faunal studies
    • Permit from the head of the indigenous peoples of the research sites
    • Representative  of  animal  welfare  society  for  clinical studies involving animals

Data Collection

Statistical Techniques

  • No formulae needed For Social Sciences:

METHODOLOGY Research Design Research Site Participants Instrumentation

    • Construction, Try-out, Reliability and Validity

Research Ethics Protocol

    • Informed consent
    • Clearance from the Ethics Review Board

Data Collection

Statistical Techniques


    • Sometimes termed DISCUSSION only for theoretical papers
    • Answers to objectives
    • Highlight salient findings of the study supported by literature.
    • Use keywords from objectives as side-head of the Results and Discussion.
    • Intercontinental support of the data (in-text citation)
    • Summary tables and significant results
    • Validation of the theory used (integrated)
    • Provide a critique on the methods and theories used in the last paragraph.

Important notes:

  • Do not include the links in the body, use names of authors and/or agencies instead
  • Do not present the same data in both a Table and Figure - this is considered redundant and a waste of space and energy. Decide which format best shows the result and go with it.
  • Do not report raw data values when they can be summarized as means, percents, etc.


  • In paragraph form, not broken down
  • Highlight new discovery (if any) that you obtained only after completing the study, something (not found in the literature) which contributes to new knowledge.
  • This   section   supports   or   negates   previous   conclusions, validates theory used and/or generates new theory.


  • Paragraph form, not broken down
  • This part describes the various forms of popular and innovative media that translate scientific information into ways that can be understood by users of the research.
  • This includes but not limited to: policy, song, dance, illustrational books, drama, storytelling, brochures,posters,paintings, radio play and video clips.


  • (Optional)
  • Limited to funders of the research
  • Acknowledge   service   agencies   that   funded   the   study (required).
  • Sources of data mined, e.g. WHO, UNESCO


No. of literatures cited:

    • At least five from each continent


    • Use recent sources (at least from year 2010 onwards unless otherwise a justification is given


    • Arrange in alphabetical order


    • Include all the names of authors which are cited in the body of your paper


    • Double space in between referenced literature items; single space in between lines of each literature cited.

Referencing Styles:

    • All references used in the manuscript should be traceable


    • Authors are cautioned from using gray literature (any work that is NOT scientifically peer reviewed and published in internationally indexed research journals).
    • Prefer references which have earned citations already.
    • The count is provided at the lower left side of every title. On the lower right is the word “cite”, click on this to get three options MLA, APA and Chicago styles. Choose the appropriate style for your study. If you decide to use MLA, then we prefer footnotes/endnotes. No reference list is required if you have endnotes. Copy and paste the citation given, add the URL of the source with the phrase retrieved on (date) from (URL). Without URL, we choose to interpret the source as print only, and hence, not traceable online.
    • Include those works cited in the text. Each entry should contain all   information  necessary  or   unambiguous   identification of the published work. Literature must be traceable online from peer-reviewed, indexed, cross-referenced journals in reputable databases.

For example,

Bei, G. X. (2012). Effects of Immediate Repetition in L2 Speaking

Tasks: A Focused Study. English Language Teaching6(1), p11.

NOTE: Do not label this section “Bibliography”. A bibliography contains references that you may have read but have not specifically cited in the text. Bibliography sections are found in books and other literary writing, but not scientific journal-style papers.


  • 1.  Traceability refers to the verification by independent parties of the original references using online technology through direct access to the website as point of source.
  • 2.  When the literature cited is copied and searched in the google scholar, the original source comes out either as full paper or abstract. The verifier can check if the source is scientific or grey literature, if the interpretation as written is true to the original intent, if the ideas used were accurately taken, if the writer copy pasted the portion in the original material, and if the writer plagiarized the source.
  • 3.  The URL of the online article as reference must be copied and pasted in the end part of the reference with the words “retrieved on (date) from (copy the URL)”. Without the URL the reference is understood as print only and hence has inherent problem of poor traceability.
  • 4.  When the URL link is dead, the reference must be replaced.
  • 5.  Most URLs are long and cumbersome to attach and read. This must be shortened by copying and searching for the URL short version in goo.gl. Upon searching there for the short version, the computer asks you to enter a number combination that is given in a box and entering it into a designated box. The short version comes out and you will now replace the long version with it.
  • 6.  In text citations can use et al when there are more than two authors. But in the reference list, all authors must be listed since et al is never allowed. This is because all authors need to earn the citation counts of their paper. Citation count can not happen when other authors are omitted because they are listed after the first author.
  • 7.  Print sources are accepted only when there are justifications made why there are no online version, such as original documents which can not be published for reason of confidentiality of content, the original material has no online version yet, among other explanations. In which case, a scanned copy if available should be attached to the article for validation during the peer review process.
  • 8. Missing info happens during the documentation of the reference. To avoid this problem, the reference in the google scholar has three versions, MLA, APA, CMS, you copy the version you choose after you click CITE in the lower right portion of the reference title. Then, click the title to direct you to the original source. Copy the URL as in #3 and find the short version as in # 5.
  • 9. Alphabetize the references. Do not segregate as books, periodicals, among others.
  • 10. Examine the final list if these references have intercontinental representation. This is to avoid a limited point of view. Since journals have global readership, references from various continents give a balanced view and a global perspective to the article regardless of scope.
  • 11. Search in the web what constitutes grey literature and check your references for it. Replace grey literature.
  • 12. Most importantly, obtain soft copies of all your references and   test   them   for   plagiarism   content   using   plagiarism detector software. Check the portion you are using if it is not plagiarized. Plagiarism is genetically transferred from one source to another and is not removed by mere attribution of source. Replace sources with high plagiarism content. Using a table, summarize plagiarism test results for all references implementing a standard of 90 percent originality and less than 5 percent of plagiarism. If you are using Turnitin, the standard is less than 10 percent of similarity.